Resolution 1540, adopted by the UN Security Council in 2004, obliges Member States to refuse any form of assistance to non-state actors attempting to acquire weapons of mass destruction. The resolution obliges states to develop their criminal legislation and strengthen international cooperation to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Member States must put in place effective controls on exports and transfers of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, their delivery systems and related materials. U.S. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy considered contracts to control the production of weapons to avoid a nuclear conflict. (Kennedy, in particular, looked at nuclear proliferation by the People`s Republic of China.) During the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962), a new set of arms control issues emerged, including the need for diplomatic communication to avert a possible nuclear disaster. Beginning in the 1960s, the United States and the Soviet Union supported several international arms control agreements, which should be at limited risk for each party. The first, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963), banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in space and under water, limiting nuclear explosions to underground sites.
The Space Treaty (1967) further restricted the use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction by prohibiting countries from putting them into orbit. In 1968, the two superpowers took the lead in the development of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (Non-Proliferation Treaty). NPT), agreeing not to promote the proliferation or proliferation of nuclear weapons in countries that did not yet have them. Two classes of states are parties to the non-proliferation treaty: those with nuclear weapons, such as China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States, as well as non-nuclear states. The treaty, originally signed by 62 countries, had grown to about 185 parties until the early 21st century, although declared or presumed nuclear states such as India, Pakistan and Israel were not parties. The NPT came into force in 1970 for a period of 25 years; it was extended indefinitely in 1995. The Second World War, which claimed between 40 and 50 million lives, was by far the bloodiest conflict in human history. The end of the peaceful phase of the war marked the nuclear era when the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. Two of the victorious countries, the United States and the Soviet Union, quickly began to develop large nuclear weapons arsenals. The possibility of mutual destruction of each country by the other in the context of an intercontinental exchange of nuclear missiles has led them to increasingly serious negotiations to limit first the tests, then the use and finally the possession of these weapons.
A forerunner, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in 1957 as an autonomous intergovernmental body, under the auspices of the United Nations, to promote the peaceful use of nuclear technology and to prevent the use of nuclear technology for military purposes; In 1959, the Antarctic Treaty, signed by 12 countries, including the United States and the Soviet Union, internationalized and demilitarized Antarctica and paved the way for future arms control agreements between the Soviet Union and the United States. Many Cold War arms control agreements have focused on mutual deterrence, a strategy in which the threat of retaliation would effectively eliminate a first attack.